Comparative literature is an academic field dealing with the literature of two or more different linguistic, cultural or national groups. While most frequently practiced with works of different languages, comparative literature may also be performed on works of the same language if the works originate from different nations or cultures among which that language is spoken. The practitioners of comparative literature study literature across national borders, across time periods, across languages, across genres, across boundaries between literature and the other arts (music, painting, dance, film, etc.), across disciplines (literature and psychology, philosophy, science, history, architecture, sociology, politics, etc.). Defined most broadly, comparative literature is the study of "literature without borders."
Scholarship in Comparative Literature include, for example, studying literacy and social status in the Americas, studying medieval epic and romance, studying the links of literature to folklore and mythology, studying colonial and postcolonial writings in different parts of the world, asking fundamental questions about definitions of literature itself. What scholars in Comparative Literature share is a desire to study literature beyond national boundaries and an interest in languages so that they can read foreign texts in their original form. Many comparatists also share the desire to integrate literary experience with other cultural phenomena such as historical change, philosophical concepts, and social movements.
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptized) – 23 April 1616) was an English poet and playwright, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist. He is often called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon". His extant works, including some collaborations, consist of about 38 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, two epitaphs on a man named John Combe, one epitaph on Elias James, and several other poems. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright.
Shakespeare was a respected poet and playwright in his own day, but his reputation did not rise to its present heights until the 19th century. The Romantics, in particular, acclaimed Shakespeare's genius, and the Victorians worshipped Shakespeare with a reverence that George Bernard Shaw called "bardolatry". In the 20th century, his work was repeatedly adopted and rediscovered by new movements in scholarship and performance. His plays remain highly popular today and are constantly studied, performed, and reinterpreted in diverse cultural and political contexts throughout the world.
Macbeth is a tragedy by William Shakespeare written around 1606. The only Shakespearean drama set in Scotland, Macbeth follows the story of a Scottish nobleman (Macbeth) who hears a prophecy that he will become king and is tempted to evil by the promise of power. Macbeth deals with the themes of evil in the individual and in the world more closely than any of Shakespeare's other works. Shakespeare draws on Holinshed's Chronicles as Macbeth's historical source, but he makes some adjustments to Holinshed's depiction of the real-life Macbeth. Holinshed's Macbeth was a soldier, and not much more; he was capable, and not too thoughtful or self-doubting. In Shakespeare's Macbeth, it is the internal tension and crumbling of Macbeth, entirely Shakespeare's inventions, that give the play such literary traction.
Macbeth is also unique among Shakespeare's plays for dealing so explicitly with material that was relevant to England's contemporary political situation. The play is thought to have been written in the later part of 1606, three years after James I, the first Stuart king, took up the crown of England. James I was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots (cousin to Elizabeth I) and this less-than-direct connection meant that James was eager to assert any legitimacy he could over his right to the English throne (even though he was a Scot).
Saini K.M. was born on June 16, 1938 in Sumedang, West Java. After graduating from IKIP Bandung, Department of English Language and Literature, he taught at ASTI Bandung, majoring in theater. His writing activities began in 1960 when he wrote poems in the magazine Siasat baru. Then, he extended his writing to other magazines such as Budaya (Yogyakarta), Pustaka dan Budaya (Jakarta), Gelora (Surabaya), while writing routine in daily Pikiran Rakyat, Bandung. He was also active in organizations such as Dewan kebudayaan jawa barat, Dewan pertimbangan budaya, and BKKNI, as well as actived in Studiklub Theatre Bandung (STB), one of the oldest theater association founded in 1959 and which still working until now. In 1985, he received an award from the governor of West Java in the field of culture with 14 other artists from West Java. He writes various genres of literature, both in English and Indonesian Sunda.
II.I. SYNOPSIS OF MACBETH
On a dark and stormy night in Scotland, Macbeth, a noble army general, returns home after defending the Scottish King, Duncan, in battle. (Macbeth, by the way, was totally awesome on the battlefield – he's good at disemboweling his enemies and he's proved himself to be a loyal, standup guy.) Along the way, Macbeth and his good pal, Banquo, run into three bearded witches (a.k.a. the "weird sisters"), who speak in rhymes and prophesy that Macbeth will be named Thane of Cawdor and King of Scotland. There's good news for Banquo, too – he'll be father to a long line of future kings of Scotland, even though he won't get to be a king himself.
Suddenly, the witches vanish into the "foul" and murky air. Whoa, think Macbeth and Banquo. Did that just happen or have we been nibbling on the "insane root"? (Banquo really does say "insane root.") The next thing we know, a guy named Ross shows up to say that, since the old Thane of Cawdor turned out to be a traitor and will soon have his head lopped off and displayed on a pike, Macbeth gets to take his place as Thane of Cawdor. OK. That takes care of the first prophesy. We wonder what will happen next…
Macbeth reveals to us that the witch's prophecy has made him think, briefly, about "murder" but he's disgusted with the idea and feels super guilty about his "horrible imaginings." He says he's willing to leave things to "chance" – if "chance" wants him to be king, then he doesn't have to lift a finger (against the current king) to make it happen.
But later, when King Duncan announces that his son Malcolm will be heir to the throne, Macbeth begins to think about murder once again. He writes a letter to his ambitious wife, Lady Macbeth, who immediately begins to scheme about how to kill Duncan. (The first thing she needs to do is berate Macbeth and make him believe that he's not a "man" if he doesn't kill Duncan.) The King just so happens to be scheduled to visit the Macbeth's at their castle so that seems like a good time to take him out. Later, Macbeth hesitates about murdering the King – after all, it's Macbeth's job to defend the guy, especially when he's a guest in Macbeth's home. But, Lady Macbeth isn't having any of his excuses. She tells Macbeth to stop being a wimp and to act like a "man." Besides, it'll be a piece of cake to drug the king's guards and then frame them for the murder.
That night at Macbeth's castle, Macbeth sees an imaginary floating dagger pointing him in the direction of the guestroom where the king's snoozing away. After he does the deed, Macbeth trips out a little bit – he hears strange voices and his wife has to tell him to snap out of it and calm down. (Lady Macbeth, by the way, says she would have killed the king herself but the guy looked too much like her father.)
When Macduff (yeah, we know, there are more "Macsomebodies" in this play than an episode of Grey's Anatomy) finds the king's dead body, Macbeth kills the guards and accuses them of murdering the king. (How convenient. Now nobody will ever hear their side of the story.) When King Duncan's kids, Donalbain and Malcolm, find out what's happened, they high tail it out of Scotland so they can't be murdered too. Macbeth, then, is named king and things are gravy…until Macbeth starts to worry about the witch's prophesy that Banquo's heirs will be kings. Macbeth's not about to let someone bump him off the throne so, he hires some hit-men to take care of Banquo and his son. Fleance, (Banquo's son) however, manages to escape after poor Banquo is murdered by Macbeth's henchman.
For Macbeth, things continue to go downhill, as when Banquo's ghost haunts him at the dinner table in front of a bunch of important guests. (That’s never fun.) Macbeth then decides to pop in on the Weird sisters for another prophesy. The witches reveal the following: 1) Macbeth should watch his back when it comes to Macduff (the guy who discovered the king's dead body); 2) "None of woman born shall harm Macbeth," which our boy takes to mean "nobody shall harm Macbeth" since everybody has a mom; 3) Macbeth has nothing to worry about until Birnam Wood (a forest) moves to Dunsinane. The sisters also show how has Macbeth a vision of eight kings, confirming their earlier prophesy that Banquo's heirs will rule Scotland. Rats! Banquo's heirs just won't go away. Macbeth resolves to do whatever it takes to secure his power, starting with killing off Macduff's family (since he can't get his hands on Macduff, who has run away to England).
By now, nobody likes Macbeth and they think he's a tyrant. They also suspect he's had a little something to do with the recent murders of Duncan and Banquo. Meanwhile, Macduff and Malcolm pay a visit to the English King, Edward the Confessor, who, unlike Macbeth, is an awesome guy and a great king. (Shakespeare's English audience totally dug this flattering portrayal of King Edward, by the way.) When Ross shows up in England with news that Macbeth has had Macduff's wife and kids murdered, Macduff and Malcolm get down to the serious business of plotting to overthrow Macbeth with the help of English soldiers, who will do their best to help save Scotland from the tyrannous Macbeth.
Meanwhile, Lady Macbeth isn't doing so hot. She sleepwalks, can't wash the imaginary blood from her hands, and degenerates until she finally croaks. Macbeth famously responds to news of his wife's apparent suicide by saying that it would have been better if she had died at a more convenient time, since he's a tad busy preparing for battle. He also goes on to say that life is "full of sound and fury, signifying nothing." (William Faulkner liked this line so much he used it for the title of one of his greatest works, The Sound and the Fury.)
Oh well, at least Macbeth is safe because the witches have said "none of woman born shall harm" him, right? Not so fast. Macduff and Malcolm have recently shown up with a big army that's looking to put Macbeth's head on a pike. Then, Malcolm orders the troops to cut the branches from the trees in Birnam Wood for camouflage. Remember what the weird sisters said about Birnam Wood moving to Dunsinane? You know where this is headed, right? Macduff corners Macbeth in the castle, calls him a "hell-hound," and tells Macbeth that he, Macduff, was "untimely ripped" from his mother's womb. So much for Macbeth not being killed by any man "of woman born." (Apparently, being delivered via cesarean section doesn't count as being "born" in this play.) Macbeth says something like "Oh, no!" (he doesn't have much to say at this point) just before Macduff slays him and carries his severed head to Malcolm, who will soon be crowned king.
II.II. SYNOPSIS OF KEN AROK
Ken Arok was a leader of robbers who is feared by the people of kediri. Ken Arok and his gang robbed citizen or anyone who is in Kediri. The group was known to be very cruel. They never hesitate to kill their victims. They used the money to gamble and had fun.
As king of Kediri, Kertajaya couldn’t stay silent. He had repeatedly sent soldiers to arrest Ken Arok and his group. But the effort was failed, because Ken Arok is very tough. As a way out, Kertajaya sent priest to meet Ken Arok hoping that the pastor talked him back to the right path.
Before the priests met Ken Arok, they stopped in Tumapel. Tumapel was under the rule of Kediri. They met akuwu Tumapel, Tunggul Ametung to discuss the matter. Ametung supported the idea of the king. The priests went to see Ken Arok in the jungle because Ken Arok was there. Ken Arok wanted to accept the proposal of the priest but with one condition. He must be a bodyguard of akuwu Tumapel.
It seems like Ken Arok had other plans to kill Tunggul Ametung. Ken Arok wanted to rule the area as well as to have Ken Dedes, Tunggul Ametung’s wife, who is very beautiful. By any means, Ken Arok eventually got rid akuwu Tumapel. Even, a keris’s master became a victim because Empu Gandring has not completed Ken Arok’s order.
Soon, Ken Arok ruled Tumapel and he became king of Tumapel. He also married Ken Dedes. Ken Arok changed Tumapel’s name to Singasari. The news of the death of Tunggul Ametung has spread to Kediri.Ken Arok also wanted to occupy Kediri. According to one priest, Kertajaya never been afraid of anyone except Betara guru. Ken Arok asked priest Lohgawe to promote him to Betara Guru. Ken Arok plans to attack Kediri. The news has been heard by Kertajaya. Especially after knowing that Batara Guru will attack the area, Kertajaya killed himself.
Eighteen years later, the Kingdom Singasari widespread. There were many gambling, drunkenness in the kingdom. Ken Dedes could not do anything about it. Ken Dedes had four sons. The first son was Anusapati, son of Tunggul Ametung, she had three sons from Ken Arok, namely Wong Ateleng, Panji Saprang, and Agnibaya. Anusapati, now teenagers, was with his grandfather in Panawijen to study. Anusapati knew that he is not the biological son of Ken Arok and Anusapati also knew that his father was killed by Ken Arok.
During Ken Arok’s era, a lot of people suffered. Anusapati could not allow that. Anusapati with oppressed people rebelled and planned to kill Ken Arok. And during the party at the palace of Singasari, unexpectedly Anusapati had successfully killed Ken Arok with the help of the villagers. Finally, he replaced Ken Arok became the king of Singasari.
Macbeth is often read as a cautionary tale about the kind of destruction ambition can cause. Macbeth is a man that at first seems content to defend his king and country against treason and rebellion and yet, his desire for power plays a major role in the way he commits the most heinous acts (with the help of his ambitious wife). Once Macbeth has had a taste of power, he seems unable and unwilling to stop killing (men, women, and children alike) in order to secure his position on the throne. Selfishly, Macbeth puts his own desires before the good of his country.
In Ken Arok, Ambition is also the theme of the story. Ken Arok pretends to be Ametung’s bodyguard. Actually, he wanted to kill Ametung and rule Tumapeng. His ambition grows bigger when he wanted to occupy Kediri too. Like Macbeth, Ken Arok puts his own desire before the good of his people. A lot of people experienced suffering in Singosari.
Macbeth is the only Shakespearean play that's set in Scotland. Though the play is set in the 11th century, there are plenty of allusions to contemporary (that is, 17th century) events that would have resonated with Shakespeare's original audience.
Ken Arok displays royal background. The story is about the kingdom. Even though, there are setting of jungle as a place of Ken Arok before becoming king. The cultural background is royal Javanese which automatically displayed Javanese culture and Javanese arts such as gamelan to supporting the royal ambience.
Character in Macbeth:
Macbeth is a beloved Scottish general who bravely defends his king and country in battle. After hearing the three weird sisters' prophesy that he will one day rule Scotland, Macbeth commits heinous murder and other tyrannous acts in order secure his position as king.
For mine own good
All causes shall give way. I am in blood
Stepp'd in so far that, should I wade no more,
Returning were as tedious as go o'er. (3.4.24)
At the play's beginning, Lady Macbeth is a powerful figure: she's charming, attractive, ambitious, and seems to be completely devoted to her husband. (We might think of the pair as the original power couple.) She's also a teensy bit worried that her man isn't quite "man enough" to do what it takes to be king. According to Lady Macbeth, her husband is "too full o' the milk of human kindness" (1.5.1). If her husband's going to be the powerful figure she wants him to be, Lady Macbeth's got to take things into her own hands. Check out this famous speech where, after learning about the witches' prophesy that Macbeth will become king, Lady Macbeth psyches herself up for murder.
Duncan is the King of Scotland. While spending the night as a guest at Inverness, he's murdered by Macbeth, who has aspirations to rule the country. In the play, Duncan is a benevolent old man. We never see him out on the battlefield, and he is always full of kindly words. He's also generous when bestowing honors on the soldiers and thanes that protect him and his kingdom. Duncan is so sympathetic and likable a character that murdering him seems horrifying.
Malcolm is elder son of King Duncan and newly appointed as Prince of Cumberland, known to be the holding place for the next King of Scotland. When we first meet Malcolm, he seems rather weak – he's standing around praising a brave and bloodied Captain for saving his life and rescuing him from capture. In other words, Malcolm's the kind of guy who seems to need rescuing.
Banquo is a general in the King's army (same as Macbeth) and is often seen in contrast to Macbeth. Banquo is the only one with Macbeth when he hears the first prophecy of the weird sisters; during the same prophecy, Banquo is told that his children will be kings, though he will not be. How Macbeth plays his part of the prophecy to be fulfilled makes the play – how Banquo does not create a nice contrast to our main character.
From the very first time we meet Banquo, he sets himself apart from Macbeth, especially notable because both characters are introduced into the play at the same time: their meeting with the witches. While Macbeth is eager to jump all over the weird sisters' words, Banquo displays a caution and wisdom contrary to Macbeth's puppy-dog excitement. He notes that evil tends to beget evil. Though, we might want to keep in mind that in Banquo's last private speech, when he knows Macbeth has done wrong, he still thinks of what good might be coming to him as a result of the prophecy.
Macduff is a loyal Scottish nobleman and the Thane of Fife. After Macbeth murders Macduff's family, Macduff grieves for his loved ones and then resolves to kill Macbeth in man-to-man combat. At the play's end, he triumphantly carries Macbeth's severed head to Malcolm, the future king.
WEIRD SISTERS (THE WITCHES)
The three weird sisters set the action of the play in motion when they confront Macbeth and prophesize that he will be King of Scotland. We never see them apart and they often speak and act in unison so it's worth considering them here as a single unit.
Characters in Ken Arok:
Villains, later became king Singasari. He has a great ambition. He want to rule tumapeng and kediri.
King of kediri. He was a brave man. Although, he fear batara guru and killed himself when he heard batara guru would attack kediri.
Pastors, adoptive father of Ken Arok. He made Ken Arok to be batara guru.
Ametung Tunggul wife, then the wife of Ken Arok.
son Ken Dedes from Tunggul Ametung. He revenged his father by killing Ken Arok.
Shakespeare’s plays introduce us to the idea that tyranny is “a perpetual political and human problem rather than a historical curiosity”. This suggests that the play is only a representation of the real political world around the globe, whether it is in England during Shakespeare’s time or in pre-Indonesian era. With this is mind, it is interesting to note the many similarities between Macbeth, which is just a play, and the legend of Ken Arok during Singosari kingdom in the twelfth century.
The legend is found in Pararaton, a chronicle of kings, which was written in the 15th century. Ken Arok was the first king of Singosari in 1222, the founder of Rajasa dynasty, which represents the lineage of the kings of Singosari and Majapahit. Majapahit itself was the first powerful Javanese kingdom whose influence spread around what is nowadays Indonesia. The story of Ken Arok is a mixture of fantasy and reality . This online source will be the reference used in the discussion of the legend, unless mentioned otherwise. To most Indonesian students, Ken Arok is a well-known tragedy of a usurper that remains to be told in history classes. In relation to political situation in Indonesia, he represents a real Machiavelist in Indonesian government. Commenting on the never-ending political instability in Indonesia, Christianto Wibisono, a well-known Indonesian political analyst even uses the term ‘Ken Arokism’ instead of Machiavelism in his criticism of wicked politicians whom he blames being responsible for high rate of corruption .
The many similarities between Macbeth and Ken Arok start from the prophetic events that drive them to gain power. Both are told about the prophecy or vision of their future sovereignity. Both pursue their power in an illegitimate way, by killing the true ruler. Both stories involve the taking of several lives. Both also need scapegoats to hide their crime. Both have to see their power taken over by the true heir and meet their fate in death. In terms of their reaction to the events prophesying their future power, Macbeth and Ken Arok represent those people who choose to conduct evil deeds to fulfill their ambition. Macbeth is at first a noble fellow. It is not until he listens to evil suggestion that he changes into a brutish and selfish seeker of power and status.
First witch : “All hail, Macbeth! Hail to thee, Thane of Glamis.
Second witch : All hail, Macbeth! Hail to thee, Thane of Cawdor.
Third witch : All hail, Macbeth, that shalt be king hereafter! (1.3. 46-48).
Meanwhile, Banquo gets a better prophecy. The third witch says, “Thou shalt get kings, though thou shall be none” (1.3. 65).
Macbeth’s noble nature is shown as he has mixed feeling about the prophecy.
“This supernatural soliciting / Cannot be ill, cannot be good. If ill, / Why hath it given me earnest of success, … If good, why do I yield to that suggestion / Whose horrid image doth unfix my hair …Against the use of nature…If chance will make me king, why, chance may crown me / Without my stir” (1.3. 129-136, 143)
While Macbeth is basically a noble man, Ken Arok is as notorious as he can be. Raised by a thief, Ken Arok is predestined to be a king and the father of kings. In other words, he is luckier than Macbeth in that he possesses both the prophecy of Macbeth and Banquo. It is told that three gods, Brahma, Vishnu and Syiva claim to be his father. Interestingly enough, Ken Arok identifies himself with Syiva, the god of destruction. There are various stories about the prophecy. One prevailing belief is that Ken Dedes, the wife of Tunggul Ametung, the king of Tumapel, a small kingdom where Ken Arok works as a guard, possesses an aura of wisdom and power, and whoever marries her will be a king and the father of kings.
Can we mix prophecy and truth? Those who believe in the prophecy may have found some truth in it, and use the truth to justify their means. Banquo realizes the danger of believing in the prophecy. “And oftentimes to win us to our harm / The instruments of darkness tell us truths, / Win us with honest trifles to betray’s / In deepest consequence.” (1.3.121-24). However, Macbeth falls into the temptation. For Macbeth's promotion to occur, the current king, Duncan, would have to be kicked out. Macbeth also understands that his crime will not end with Duncan’s death. The matter now is whether one is willing to control his mind to resist the temptation or is ready to bear greater risk for the sake of his goal. Macbeth belongs to the latter category. “If th’assassination / Could trammel up the consequence, and catch / With his surcease success: that but this blow / Might be the be-all and the end-all, here, / But here upon this bank and shoal of time, / We’d jump the life to come” (1.7. 2-7).
In terms of the illegitimate way Macbeth gains his power, he can be considered a tyrant, as Macduff defines it. “Bleed, bleed, poor country! /Great tyranny, lay thou thy basis sure, For goodness dare not check thee! wear thou thy wrongs; The title is affeer’d! Fare thee well, Lord: / I would not be the villain that thou think’st / For the whole space that’s in the tyrant’s grasp, And the rich East to boot” (4.3. 32-37). Malcolm’s definition of tyranny is clearer in that Macbeth’s virtues have given way to abusive power. “This tyrant, whose sole name blisters our tongue, / Was once thought honest…A good and virtuous name may recoil / In an imperial charge” (4.3. 12-13, 20).
McGrail argues that Macbeth does not really fit in Malcom’s description of tyranny. His desire is only simple, he wants to be loved and be honored (37). It is not really correct. Although his desire may be as simple as that, the path he takes shows that he is willing to sacrifice everything to achieve his ambition. His demand to have his question answered by the three witches proves his determination.
Though you untie the winds and let them fight
Against the churches, though the yeasty waves
Confound and swallow navigation up,
Though bladed corn be lodged and trees blown down,
Though castle topple on their warder’s heads,
Though palaces and pyramids do slope
Their heads to their foundations, though the treasure
Of nature’s germens tumble all together
Even till destruction sickens, answer me
To what I ask you. (4.1. 68-76).
Ken Arok shares Macbeth strong determination. To him, it is apparent that marrying Ken Dedes would open the possibility of gaining the power. As Macbeth does, he also needs to get rid of the true ruler. Here is the most famous part of the legend. First, he has to kill Tunggul Ametung. He then orders a keris, Javanese double-edged sword, to Mpu Gandring, a keris master. At the appointed time, the keris is not finished yet. Enraged, Ken Arok kills Mpu Gandring with the unfinished keris. Just before he dies, Mpu Gandring curses Ken Arok that the keris will take seven lives of kings, including Ken Arok himself. In Javanese history, the keris is known as Keris Mpu Gandring.
Different from Macbeth who is controlled by Lady Macbeth, Ken Arok is an expert in political strategy. He has a fellow soldier, Kebo Ijo, as the scapegoat. He lends the keris to Kebo Ijo, who proudly shows the keris in public so that everybody thinks he is the owner. One night, Ken Arok steals the keris and kills Tunggul Ametung, leaving the keris in Tunggul Ametung’s body. The rest is clear; Kebo Ijo is prosecuted while Ken Arok picks the ripe fruit. He becomes the king of Tumapel and marries Ken Dedes.
The existence of scapegoat seems to be significant in clearing the path to power. Here we find another difference between Ken Arok and Macbeth. It is never told whether Ken Arok actually suffers from guilt. He carefully plans to put Kebo Ijo as the scapegoat to clear his path without any suspicion. Meanwhile, Macbeth needs scapegoats not only to cover his crime of murdering Duncan, but also to be free from guilty feelings. He does not really plan on killing the guards, but Lady Macbeth warns him of his awkwardness that might reveal his crime. Because Macbeth worships his self-esteem and selfish rights and desires, he eventually forgets his virtue. Macbeth tells the others that he has killed the guards of Duncan’s chamber. “O, yet I do repent me of my fury / That I did kill them” (2.3. 103).
That power is abusive is clear as Macbeth wants to prevent Banquo from having his prophecy put into reality. Macbeth wants his descendants, rather than Banquo’s, to be kings. The only way is to get rid of Banquo.
Then, prophet-like, / They hailed him father to a line of kings. / Upon my head they placed a fruitless crown,…No son of mine succeeding. If’t be so, / For Banquo’s issue have I filed my mind…Given to the common enemy of man / To make them kings, the seeds of Banquo kings. / Rather than so, come fate into the list / And champion me to th’ utterance” (3.1. 60-73).
Banquo’s murder triggers Macbeth’s guilt, yet does not prevent him from taking more life to maintain his throne. The murder of innocent family of Macduff shows that Macbeth puts the security of his reign over honor. He is a Machiavellist, in that he fits to Machiavelli’s political strategy which states that security should be put first in cases in which security is in conflict with honor (Viroli 91)
While the successive killing puts Banquo as the third victim with the motive of preventing his prophecy to happen, the successive murder in the legend of Ken Arok is the realization of Mpu Gandring’s curse. This is a story of never-ending revenge that accompanies Ken Arok’s story of success and imperialism. History mentions that he annexed the neighboring kingdom and established a new one, the kingdom of Singosari in 1222. This new kingdom would later produce kings of Majapahit, the most powerful Javanese kingdom in the 13th century. The legend tells that the keris takes Ken Arok’s life in the hands of Tunggul Ametung’s son, Anusapati. Then, Ken Arok’s son’s revenge follows, and so on. After taking so many lives, Ranggawuni, Anusapati’s son, who murdered Tohjaya, Ken Arok’s son, realizes that the keris has brought and will bring more chaos and death. So it is thrown away to Java sea, and becomes a dragon.
Both Macbeth and Ken Arok are Machiavellists, and both are defeated by the legitimate power. Anusapati, the true heir of Tunggul Ametung, gains his sovereignity after taking revenge of his father’s death. Malcolm gains the throne he deserves as the true heir of Duncan with the help of Macduff. Macduff himself has his own motive of revenge as well as his intention to fight against a tyrant when he slains Macbeth. “Then yield thee, coward, / And live to be the show and gaze o’th’ time. / We’ll have thee as our rarer monster, Painted upon a pole, and underwrit / ‘Here may you see the tyrant” (5.11. 24-27).
Macduff’s speech suggests that Macbeth serves as an example of tyranny to the world. This works for Ken Arok too. While many interpretations state that the legend of Ken Arok and Ken Dedes is a mere fiction, it is actually a reflection of the mindsets and ideological contestations in Indonesia. The era of Singasari and Majapahit marks the end of Hinduism in East Java and witnesses the beginning of Islamic era in Javanese history. These can be regarded as palimpsests of Indonesian history, which have continued to give shape and colour to Indonesian cultural and political life to date. Pramudya Ananta Toer, an internationally-recognized Indonesian author, yet the victim of severe political discrimination at home, has a troubling view of the first two presidents of Indonesia. In his writing “My Apologies, in the name of Experience”, translated by Alex G. Bardsley, he puts Ken Arok in the body of Suharto, the second president of Indonesia who ruled for thirty two years, and Mpu Gandring was incarnated in the body of Sukarno, the first president .
However, Barbara Reibling argues that Macbeth is not really a Machiavelli’s ideal prince. His biggest flaw is his reluctance to have a total commitment to “the course of wrongdoings, besides his inability to dissimulate” (280). The problem with her interpretation is that she intends to say whether one is an ideal Machiavellist, whereas the concept of Machiavelli itself entails a room for wrongdoings. It is clear that that a Machiavelli should be willing to be a real evil, with no guilt at all. Maurizio Viroli points out that, for Machiavelli, a good citizen should be prepared to do evil, or what is considered to be evil, to save the country. Yet, his writings also imply “the willingness to grand deeds, and even to waste one’s life, one’s soul” (8). Riebling’s case is right in proving Macbeth as a normal human being with conscience, her strict use of Machiavellian standards is debatable. Judging from his strength, courage, and willingness to commit evil, I would argue that Macbeth is a Machiavellist. He understands that power is abusive, knows what is good and evil, but chooses evil anyway. That is why he deserves the destruction at the end of the play. I agree with Macduff and Christianto Wibisono that Macbeth and Ken Arok are examples of dirty politicians, and that the world should learn from their fate in order that we can play a clean government.
Literary works can spread rapidly in a short time to all parts of the world and then inspire other writers to innovate or modify it into a variety of new literary forms or genre. This tendency is certainly not just happened nowadays, but has been happening since humans make contact with each other, verbally or in writing. For example, Shakespeare's works are read in Japan and re-created by the Japanese artist, and if we examined carefully Shakespeare's drama may taken from other literary works.
Writers have a tendency to borrow directly or indirectly from other sources. Shakespeare's plays which considered a milestone in the literary world, according to some expert, have no original thought. In other words, it’s all loan or even stolen. Source stolen diverse, ranging from literature to chronicle text and history. A very popular story among the people is the unaccomplished love, which in western culture is widely known as the story of Romeo and Juliet. The flow was also found in any culture and still is a source of creativity that will not run out for writers and poets.